Journal articles

2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016

2017

Bonneau,J. Fletcher, T.D. Costello, J.F. and Burns, M.J. (2017). Stormwater infiltration and the urban ‘karst’ – A review.  Journal of Hydrology.

Coker, M.E., Bond, N.R, Chee, Y.E., and Walsh, C.J. (2017). Alternatives to biodiversity offsets for mitigating the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13057Full text

Farag, A.M., Larson, D.L., Stauber, J., Stahl, R. and Walsh, C.J. (2017) Restoration of contaminated ecosystems: adaptive management in a changing climate. Restoration Ecology, 25, 884–893.

Fidler, F., Chee, Y.E., Wintle, B.C., Burgman, M., McCarthy, M. and Gordon, A. (2017). Meta-research for evaluating reproductability in ecology and evolution. BioScience 67, 282-289.

Li, C. Fletcher, T.D. Duncan, H.P. & Burns, M.J. (2017). Can stormwater control measures restore altered urban flow regimes at the catchment scale? Journal of Hydrology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.03.037.

Payne, E. G. I., Pham, T., Cook, P. L. M., Deletic, A., Hatt, B. E., & Fletcher, T. D. (2017). The inside story of gas processes within stormwater biofilters – does greenhouse gas production tarnish the benefits of nitrogen removal?. Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b05653.

Richards, P. J., Williams, N. S. G., Fletcher, T. D., & Farrell, C. (2017). Can raingardens produce food and retain stormwater? Effects of substrates and stormwater application method on plant water use, stormwater retention and yield. Ecological Engineering, 100, 165-174. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.12.013.

Russell, K.L., Vietz, G.J, & Fletcher, T.D. (2017). Global sediment yields from urban and urbanizing watersheds. Earth-Science Reviews, 168, 73-80.

Schubert, J.E., Burns, M.J., Fletcher, T.D. & Sanders, B.F. (2017). A Framework for the Case-Specific Assessment of Green Infrastructure in Mitigating Urban Flood Hazards. Advances in Water Resources.

Szota, C., Farrell, C., Williams, N.S.G., Arndt, S.K., & Fletcher, T.D. (2017). Drought-avoiding plants with low water use can achieve high rainfall retention without jeopardising survival on green roofs. Science of the Total environment.

Vietz, G. J., Lintern, A., Webb, J. A., Straccione, D., 2017, River bank erosion and the influence of environmental flow management. Journal of Environmental Management.

2016

Bhaskar, A., Beesley, L., Burns, M. J., Fletcher, T. D., Hamel, P., Oldham, C., & Roy, A. (2016). Will it rise or will it fall? Managing the complex effects of urbanization on base flow. Freshwater Science 35, 293–310. View PDF

Brown, H.L., Bos, D.G., Walsh, C.J., Fletcher, T.D. and Rossrakesh, S. (2016). More than money: how multiple factors influence householder participation in at-source stormwater management. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 59, 79-97.

Chee, Y.E., Wilkinson, L., Nicholson, A.E., Quintana-Ascencio, P.F., Fauth, J.E., Hall, D., Ponzio, K.J. and Rumpff, L. (2016) Modelling spatial and temporal changes with GIS and Spatial and Dynamic Bayesian Networks. Environmental Modelling and Software 82, 108-120.

Garrard, G.E., Fidler, F., Wintle, B.C., Chee, Y.E. and Bekessy, S.A. (2016) Debunking some common myths to create more space for scientists in public debate. ESA Bulletin 46, 6-7.

Garrard, G.E., Fidler, F., Wintle, B.C., Chee, Y.E. and Bekessy, S.A. (2016) Beyond advocacy: making space for conservation scientists in public debate. Conservation Letters 9, 208-212.

Greet, J. (2016) The potential of soil seed banks of a eucalypt wetland forest to aid restoration. Wetlands Ecology and Management 24, 565-577

Greet, J., King, E., and Stewart-Howie, M. (2016) Plastic weed matting is better than jute or woodchips for controlling the invasive wetland grass Phalaris arundinacea, but not Phragmites australis. Plant Protection Quarterly 31, 19-22.

Hawley, R. J., & Vietz, G. J. (2016). Addressing the urban stream disturbance regime. Freshwater Science, 35, 278–292.

Imberger, S.J., Walsh, C.J., Tsyrlin, E., Kerr, D.G., and Tewman, M. (2016). Variability in the response of amphipods and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure to prolonged drought in forested upland streams. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25: 1465–1480.

Mata, L., Garrad, G.E., Kutt, A., Wintle, B.C., Chee, Y.E., Backstrom, A., Bainbridge, B., Urlus, J., Brown, G., Tolsma, A., Yen, A., New, T. and Bekessy, S. (2016) Eliciting and integrating expert knowledge to assess the viability of the critically endangered golden sun-moth Synemon plana. Austral Ecology, 10.1111/aec.12431.

Nemes, V., La Nauze, A., Walsh, C.J., Fletcher, T.D., Bos, D., Rossrakesh, S. and Stoneham, G. (2016). Saving a creek one bid at a time: a uniform price auction for urban stormwater retention. Urban Water Journal, 13232–241.

Parker, T.H., Forstmeier, W., Koricheva, J., Fidler, F., Hadfield, J.D., Chee, Y.E., Kelly, C.D., Gurevitch, J. and Nakagawa, S. (2016) Fraud not a primary cause of irreproducible results: a reply to Clark et al. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.09.004.

Parker, T.H., Forstmeier, W., Koricheva, J., Fidler, F., Hadfield, J.D., Chee, Y.E., Kelly, C.D., Gurevitch, J. and Nakagawa, S. (2016) Transparency in ecology and evolution: real problems, real solutions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 31, 711-719.

Rose, L., Heard, G.W., Chee, Y.E. and Wintle, B. (2016) Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty. Conservation Biology 30, 350-361.

Roy, A.H., Capps, K.A., El-Sabaawi, R.W., Jones, K.L., Parr, T.B., Ramírez, A., Smith, R.F., Walsh, C.J. & Wenger, S.J. (2016). Urbanization and stream ecology: diverse mechanisms of change. Freshwater Science, 35, 272–277.

Smith, R.F., Hawley, R.J., Neale, M.W., Veitz, G.J., Diaz-Pascacio, E., Herrmann, J., Lovell, A.C., Prescott, C., Rios-Touma, B., Smith, B, and Utz, R.M. (2016) Urban stream renovation: incorporating societal objectives to achieve ecological improvements. Freshwater Science, 35, 364–379. View PDF

Vietz, G.J., Rutherfurd, I.D., Fletcher, T.D. and Walsh, C.J. (2016). Thinking outside the channel: Challenges and opportunities for protection and restoration of stream morphology in urbanizing catchments. Landscape and Urban Planning, 145, 34–44.

Vietz, G.J., Walsh, C.J. and Fletcher, T.D. (2016). Urban hydrogeomorphology and the urban stream syndrome: treating the symptoms and causes of geomorphic change. Progress in Physical Geography, 40, 480–492.

Walsh, C.J., Booth, D.B., Burns, M.J., Fletcher, T.D., Hale, R.L., Hoang, L.N., Livingston, G., Rippy, M.A., Roy, A.H., Scoggins, M. & Wallace, A. (2016). Principles for urban stormwater management to protect stream ecosystems. Freshwater Science, 35, 398–411. View PDF

Walsh, C. J., Fletcher, T. D., & Vietz, G. J. (2016). Variability in stream ecosystem response to urbanization: Unraveling the influences of physiography and urban land and water management. Progress in Physical Geography, 40, 714-731.

Walsh, C.J. & Webb, J.A. (2016). Interactive effects of urban stormwater drainage, land clearance, and flow regime on stream macroinvertebrate assemblages across a large metropolitan region. Freshwater Science, 35, 324–339. View PDF

2015

Askarizadeh, A., Rippy, M. A., Fletcher, T. D., Feldman, D., Peng, J., Bowler, P., Mehring, A., Winfrey, B., Vrugt, J., & AghaKouchak, A. (2015). From rain tanks to catchments: Use of low-impact development to address hydrologic symptoms of the urban stream syndrome. Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 11264–11280.

Bos, D.G. & Brown, H.L. (2015) Overcoming barriers to community participation in a catchment-scale experiment: building trust and changing behavior. Freshwater Science 34, 1169–1175. Full text

Burns, M. J., Fletcher, T. D., Duncan, H. P., Hatt, B. E., Ladson, A. R., & Walsh, C. J. (2015). The performance of rainwater tanks for stormwater retention and water supply at the household scale: an empirical study. Hydrological Processes, 29, 152–160.

Burns, M.J., Schubert, J.E., Fletcher, T.D & Sanders, B.F. (2015). Testing the impact of at-source stormwater management on urban flooding through a coupling of network and overland flow models. WIREs Water, 2, 291–300.

Burns, M. J., Wallis, E., & Matic., V. (2015). Building capacity in low-impact drainage management through research collaboration. Freshwater Science, 34, 1176–1185. Full text

Burns, M. J., Walsh, C. J., Fletcher, T. D., Ladson, A. R., & Hatt, B. E. (2015)  A landscape measure of urban stormwater runoff effects is a better predictor of stream condition than a suite of hydrologic factors. Ecohydrology, 8, 160–171.

Coller, M. L. F., Wheeler, P., Kunapo, J., and Peterson, J. (2016). Interactive flood hazard visualisation in Adobe Flash. Journal of Flood Risk Management, DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12188

Fletcher, T. D., Shuster, W. D., Hunt, W. F., Ashley, R., Butler, D., Arthur, S., Trowsdale, S., Barraud, S., Semadeni-Davies, A., Bertrand-Krajewski, J.-L., Mikkelsen, P. S., Rivard, G., Uhl, M., Dagenais, D., & Viklander, M. (2015)  SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more—the evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage. Urban Water Journal, 12, 525-542. Full text

Greet, J. (2015) The marked flooding tolerance of seedlings of a threatened swamp gum: implications for the restoration of critical wetland forests. Australian Journal of Botany. 63, 669-678.

Greet, J., J. A. Webb & R. D. Cousens (2015). Floods reduce the prevalence of exotic plant species within the riparian zone: evidence from natural floods. Applied Vegetation Science. 18, 503-512

Greet, J., & Rees, P. (2015) Slashing may have potential for controlling Phragmites australis in long-inundated parts of a Ramsar-listed wetland. Ecological Management and Restoration. 16, 233-236

Hamel, P., Daly, E., & Fletcher, T. D. (2015). Which baseflow metrics should be used in assessing flow regimes of urban streams? Hydrological Processes, 29, 2367–2378.

Prosser, T., Morison, P.J. & Coleman, R.A. (2015). Integrating stormwater management to restore a stream: perspectives from a waterway management authority. Freshwater Science, 34, 1186–1194. Full text

Richards, P. J., Farrell, C., Tom, M., Williams, N. S. G., & Fletcher, T. D. (2015). Vegetable raingardens can produce food and reduce stormwater runoff. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14, 646–654.

Sammonds, M.J, & Vietz, G.J. (2015). Setting stream naturalisation goals to achieve ecosystem improvement in urbanising greenfield catchments. Area, 47, 386–395.

Szota, C., Farrell, C., Livesley, S. J., & Fletcher, T. D. (2015). Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater. Water Research. 83, 195–204.

Walsh, C. J. (2015) Comment on “Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures” by Koch et al. (Elem Sci Anth 3:000063, July 2015). Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 3, 000077. Full text

Walsh, C.J. & Fletcher, T.D. (2015). Stream experiments at the catchment scale: the challenges and rewards of collaborating with community and government to push policy boundaries. Freshwater Science, 34, 1159–1160. Full text

Walsh, C.J., Fletcher, T.D., Bos, D.G., & Imberger, S.J. (2015). Restoring a stream through retention of urban stormwater runoff: a catchment-scale experiment in a social-ecological system. Freshwater Science, 34, 1161–1168. Full text

2014

Burns, M.J., Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J., Ladson, A.R. & Hatt, B.E. (2014) Flow-regime management at the urban land-parcel scale: a test of feasibility. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20, 0001002.  DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001002.

Fletcher, T. D., Vietz, G. J., & Walsh, C. J. (2014) Protection of stream ecosystems from urban stormwater runoff: the multiple benefits of an ecohydrological approach. Progress in Physical Geography, 38, 543–555.

Hamel, P., McHugh, I., Coutts, A., Daly, E., Beringer, J., & Fletcher, T. D. (2014) Automated chamber system to measure field evapotranspiration rates. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20, 000106. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001006

Imberger, S.J., Cook, P.L.M., Grace, M.R. & Thompson, R.M. (2014) Tracing carbon sources in small urbanising streams: catchment-scale stormwater drainage overwhelms the effects of reach-scale riparian vegetation. Freshwater Biology, 59, 168–186.

Kandra, H., McCarthy, D. T., Fletcher, T. D., & Deletic, A. (2014) Assessment of clogging phenomena in granular filter media used for stormwater treatment Journal of Hydrology, 512, 518–527.

Lizama Allende, K., McCarthy, D., & Fletcher, T. (2014) The influence of media type on removal of arsenic, iron and boron from acidic wastewater in horizontal flow wetland microcosms planted with Phragmites australis. Chemical Engineering Journal, 246, 217–228.

Marchand, L., Nsanganwimana, F., Lamy, J., Quintela-Sabaris, C., Gonnelli, C., Colzi, I., Fletcher, T., Oustriere, N., Kolbas, A., and Kidd, P. (2014). Root biomass production in populations of six rooted macrophytes in response to Cu exposure: Intra-specific variability versus constitutive-like tolerance. Environmental Pollution, 193, 205-215.

Martin, E.H., Walsh, C.J., Serena, M. & Webb, J.A. (2014) Urban stormwater runoff limits distribution of platypus. Austral Ecology39, 337–345.

Payne, E.G.I., Fletcher, T.D., Cook, P.L.M., Deletic, A. & Hatt, B.E. (2014) Processes and drivers of nitrogen removal in stormwater biofiltration. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 796–846.

Payne, E., Pham, T., Cook, P. L. M., Fletcher, T. D., Hatt, B., & Deletic, A. (2014) Biofilter design for effective nitrogen removal from stormwater – influence of plant species, inflow hydrology and use of a saturated zone. Water Science and Technology, doi:10.2166/wst.2014.013.

Payne, E. G. I., Fletcher, T. D., Russell, D., Grace, M. R., Cavagnaro, T., Evrard, V., Deletic, A., Hatt, B., & Cook, P. L. M. (2014) Temporary storage or permanent removal? The division of nitrogen between biotic assimilation and denitrification in stormwater biofiltration systems. PLoS ONE 9(3), e90890.

Tom, M., Fletcher, T. D., and McCarthy, D. T. (2014). Heavy metal contamination of vegetables irrigated by urban stormwater: A matter of time? PLOS ONE, 9(11).

Vietz, G.J., Sammonds, M.J., Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J., Rutherfurd, I.D. & Stewardson, M.J. (2014) Ecologically relevant geomorphic attributes of streams are impaired by even low levels of watershed effective imperviousness. Geomorphology, 206, 67–78.

Walsh, C. J. & Webb, J. A. (2014) Spatial weighting of land use and temporal weighting of antecedent discharge improves prediction of stream condition. Landscape Ecology, 29, 1171–1185.

2013

Braud, I., Fletcher, T.D. & Andrieu, H. (2013) Hydrology of peri-urban catchments: processing and modelling. Journal of Hydrology, 485, 1–4.

Browne, D., Deletic, A., Mudd, G., & Fletcher, T. (2013) A two-dimensional model of hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems. Hydrological Processes, 27, 2785–2799.

Fletcher, T.D., Andrieu, H. & Hamel, P. (2013) Understanding, management and modelling of urban hydrology and its consequences for receiving waters; a state of the art. Advances in Water Resources, 51, 261–279.

Grant, S.B., Fletcher, T.D., Feldman, D.L., Saphores, J.D., Cook, P.L. M., Stewardson, M., Low, K., Burry, K., & Hamilton, A.J. (2013) Adapting urban water systems to a changing climate: lessons from the Millennium drought in southeast Australia. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 10727–10734.

Greet, J., Cousens, R.D. & Webb, J.A. (2013) More exotic and fewer native plant species: riverine vegetation patterns associated with altered seasonal flow patterns. River Research and Applications, 29, 686-706.

Greet, J., Cousens, R.D. & Webb, J.A. (2013) Seasonal timing of inundation affects riparian plant growth and flowering: implications for riparian vegetation composition. Plant ecology, 214, 87-101.

Greet, J., Cousens, R.D. & Webb, J.A. (2013) Flow regulation is associated with riverine soil seed bank composition within an agricultural landscape: potential implications for restoration. Journal of Vegetation Science, 24, 157-167.

Hamel, P., Daly, E. & Fletcher, T.D. (2013) Source-control stormwater management for mitigating the impacts of urbanisation on baseflow: a review. Journal of Hydrology, 485, 201–211.

Hamel, P., & Fletcher, T. D. (2013) The impact of stormwater source-control strategies on the (low) flow regime of urban catchments Water Science and Technology, DOI:10.2166/wst.2013.772

Hamel, P. & Fletcher, T.D. (2013) Modelling the impact of stormwater source-control infiltration techniques on catchment baseflow. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 0.1002/hyp.10069.

Virasawhmy, H., Stewardson, M., Vietz, G., & Fletcher, T. D. (2013) Factors that affect the hydraulic performance of raingardens: Implications for design and maintenance. Water Science and Technology, DOI:10.2166/wst.2013.809

Zinger, Y., Blecken, G.-T., Fletcher, T.D., Viklander, M. & Deletic, A. (2013) Optimising nitrogen removal in existing stormwater biofilters: Benefits and tradeoffs of a retrofitted saturated zone. Ecological Engineering,51, 75–82.

2012

Burns, M.J., Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J., Ladson, A.R. & Hatt, B.E. (2012) Hydrologic shortcomings of conventional urban stormwater management and opportunities for reform. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105, 230–240.

Daly, E., Deletic, A., Hatt, B.E. & Fletcher, T.D. (2012) Modelling of stormwater biofilters under random hydrologic variability: a case study of a carpark at Monash University, Victoria (Australia). Hydrological Processes, 26, 3416–3424.

Feng, W., Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D., McCarthy, D.T. & Deletic, A. (2012) Biofilters for stormwater harvesting: understanding the treatment performance of key metals that pose a risk for water use. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 5100–5108.

Gonzalez-Merchan, C., Barraud, S., Le Coustumer, S. & Fletcher, T.D. (2012) Monitoring of clogging evolution in the stormwater infiltration system and determinant factors. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 16, 34–47.

Grant, S., Saphores, J., Feldman, D., Hamilton, A., Fletcher, T.D., Cook, P., Stewardson, M., Sanders, B., Levin, L., Ambrose, R., Deletic, A., Brown, R., Jiang, S., Rosso, D., Cooper, W. & Marusic, I. (2012) Taking the “waste” out of “wastewater” for human water security ad ecosystem sustainability. Science, 337, 681–686.

Greet, J., Cousens, R.D. & Webb, J.A. (2012) Flow regulation affects temporal patterns of riverine plant seed dispersal: potential implications for plant recruitment. Freshwater Biology, 57, 2568-2579.

Le Coustumer, S., Fletcher, T.D., Deletic, A., Barraud, S. & Poelsma, P.J. (2012) The influence of design parameters on clogging of stormwater biofilters: a large-scale column study. Water Research, 46, 6743–6752.

Li, Y., McCarthy, D.T., Alcasar, L., Bratières, K., Fletcher, T.D. & Deletic, A. (2012) Removal of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and F-RNA coliphages by stormwater biofilters. Ecological Engineering, 49, 137–145.

Lizama Allende, K., Fletcher, T.D. & Sun, G. (2012) The effect of substrate media on the removal of arsenic, boron and iron from an acidic wastewater in planted column reactors. Chemical Engineering Journal, 179, 119–130.

Lizama Allende, K., Fletcher, T.D. & Sun, G. (2012) Removal of arsenic by coprecipitation with iron in vertical flow wetland columns. Environmental Science & Technology (eds G.A. Sorial & J. Hong), pp. 312–318. American Scientific Press, Houston, USA.

Walsh, C.J., Fletcher, T.D. & Burns, M.J. (2012) Urban stormwater runoff: a new class of environmental flow problem. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e45814. doi:45810.41371/journal.pone.0045814.

Walsh, C.J., Fletcher, T.D., Vietz, G., Thompson, R., Tapper, N., Beringer, J., Coutts, A. & Allen, R. (2012) Using the water generated by cities to provide ecosystem services. CityGreen, 5, 154–163.

2011

Deletic, A., Dotto, C.B.S., McCarthy, D.T., Kleidorfer, M., Freni, G., Mannina, G., Uhl, M., Henrichs, M., Fletcher, T.D., Rauch, W., Bertrand-Krajewski, J.L. & Tait, S. (2011) Assessing uncertainties in urban drainage models. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 42–44, 3–10.

Dotto, C., Deletic, A., Fletcher, T.D. & McCarthy, D.T. (2011) Calibration and sensitivity analysis of urban drainage models:MUSIC rainfall/runoff module and a simple stormwater quality model. Australian Journal of Water Resources, 15, 85–94.

Dotto, C., Kleidorfer, M., Deletic, A., Rauch, W., McCarthy, D.T. & Biofiltration, F.f.A.W. (2011) Performance and sensitivity analysis of stormwater models using a Bayesian approach and long-term high resolution data. Environmental Modelling and Software, 26, 1225–1239.

Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J., Bos, D., Nemes, V., RossRakesh, S., Prosser, T., Hatt, B. & Birch, R. (2011) Restoration of stormwater retention capacity at the allotment-scale through a novel economic instrument. Water Science and Technology, 64.2, 494–502.

Francey, M., Fletcher, T.D., Deletic, A. & Duncan, H.P. (2011) The testing and sensitivity of a simple method for predicting urban pollutant loads. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137, 782–789.

Greet, J., Webb, J.A. & Cousens, R.D. (2011) The importance of seasonal flow timing for riparian vegetation dynamics: a systematic review using causal criteria analysis. Freshwater Biology, 56, 1231-1247.

Greet, J., Webb, J.A. & Downes, B.J. (2011) Flow variability maintains the structure and composition of in‐channel riparian vegetation. Freshwater Biology, 56, 2514-2528.

Hatt, B.E., Steinel, A., Deletic, A. & Fletcher, T.D. (2011) Retention of heavy metals by stormwater filtration systems: breakthrough analysis. Water Science and Technology, 64, 1913–1919.

Imberger, S.J., Thompson, R.M. & Grace, M.R. (2011) Urban catchment hydrology overwhelms reach scale effects of riparian vegetation on organic matter dynamics. Freshwater Biology, 56, 1370–1389.

Lizama Allende, K., Fletcher, T.D. & Sun, G. (2011) Enhancing the removal of arsenic, boron and heavy metals in subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different supporting media. Water Science and Technology, 63, 2612–2618.

Lizama A, K., Fletcher, T.D. & Sun, G. (2011) Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands. Chemosphere, 84, 1032–1043.

Yong, C., Deletic, A., Fletcher, T.D. & Grace, M.R. (2011) Hydraulic and treatment performance of pervious pavements under variable drying and wetting regimes. Water Science and Technology, 64, 1692–1699.